Some "Ethic of Reciprocity" passages from the religious texts of various religions and secular beliefs:
|Brahmanism: "This is the sum of Dharma [duty]: Do naught unto others which would cause you pain if done to you". Mahabharata, 5:1517 "|
| Ancient Egyptian: |
| Humanism: |
|Islam: "None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself." Number 13 of Imam "Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths."|
| Native American Spirituality:
|Roman Pagan Religion: "The law imprinted on the hearts of all men is to love the members of society as themselves."|
|Sufism: "The basis of Sufism is consideration of the hearts and feelings of others. If you haven't the will to gladden someone's heart, then at least beware lest you hurt someone's heart, for on our path, no sin exists but this." Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh, Master of the Nimatullahi Sufi Order.|
|Unitarian: "We affirm and promote respect for the interdependent of all existence of which we are a part." Unitarian principles.|
|Wicca: "An it harm no one, do what thou wilt" (i.e. do what ever you will, as long as it harms nobody, including yourself). One's will is to be carefully thought out in advance of action. This is called the Wiccan Rede|
|Yoruba: (Nigeria): "One going to take a pointed stick to pinch a baby bird should first try it on himself to feel how it hurts."|
|Epictetus: "What you would avoid suffering yourself, seek not to impose on others." (circa 100 CE)|
|Kant: "Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal law of nature."|
|Plato: "May I do to others as I would that they should do unto me." (Greece; 4th century BCE)|
|Socrates: "Do not do to others that which would anger you if others did it to you." (Greece; 5th century BCE)|
|Seneca: "Treat your inferiors as you would be treated by your superiors," Epistle 47:11 (Rome; 1st century CE)|
" … It’s depressing that there are a kazillion ways to cause pain to others—the kind of pain that grows and festers and turns evil and nasty.
"Then, its tentacles reach out and infect still more people. Generations of the same family, and even communities, can suffer before the cycle is broken—if it ever is. Sometimes the people involved just self-destruct, or—rarely—they ignore the hurt done to them or defeat it. Sometimes the evil explodes and the whole community, or the world, is forced into facing an issue and fixing it. None of it is easy and it doesn’t happen overnight.
"The golden rule—treat others the way you want to be treated—deals with halting the spread of evil. This advice, found in cultures around the world in one form or other, calls on us to think before we act. It requires us to put ourselves in another’s shoes, to experience in our imaginations the results of our treatment of another, to be kind, to be patient. It might work, if we can get over the notion that rules are made to be broken.
"But, if evil can spread and grow, so can goodness. And it’s up to all of us to plant it—a seed here, a seed there, and nourish it along.
"Everything we do makes a difference.
"It’s a no-brainer: it will be a better world if we do good things.
The words may be different, but "golden rule" is the same.
By Gayle White Cox News Service
Most major religions of the world have at least one thing in common: the "golden rule." Many Americans grow up learning it as "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."
BAHÁI: The Bahái faith is identified with a man who took the name Baháu'llah, which means "Glory of God" in Persian. This religion is less than 200 years old. It claims 6.9 million followers in more than 200 countries and territories. People of the Bahái faith believe in one God, who has many messengers.
"Choose for thy neighbor that which thou choosest for thyself."
BUDDHISM: Buddha means "the awakened one" in Sanskrit, an ancient language of India. The title was given to Siddhartha Gautama, who was born about 566 B.C. into a royal family in what is now Nepal. Buddhism teaches that Buddha suddenly realized the secrets of the universe while he sat under a bodhi tree meditating. Buddha did not claim to be divine and did not point to any god. There are 356 million Buddhists worldwide.
"Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful."
CHRISTIANITY Christianity was founded 2,000 years ago by the followers of Jesus, a Jewish man born in Palestine. The calendar most people use today dates from the time of his birth. Christians believe Jesus is God's son. They teach that he was crucified, or nailed to a cross, to die for everyone's sins and that he rose from the dead and is in heaven. One of every three people in the world is Christian.
"In everything, do to others as you would have them do to you."
CONFUCIANISM When the K'ung family, which was living in what is now the Shantung province of China, had a baby boy about 551 B. C., they named him Ch'iu. Later, his followers called him K'ung Fu-tzy, or K'ung the Master. In the West, he is known as Confucius. He became a teacher of arts and mathematics. He also emphasized the need for harmony and order in society. His teachings were passed down through generations in China and other parts of Asia. The World Almanac estimates the number of Confucianists at 6.2 million today.
"Try your best to treat others as you would wish to be treated yourself."
HINDUISM Hinduism cannot be traced to a single founder. It evolved over thousands of years in India. Most of the world's 800 million Hindus still live in India, but many now live in the United States. Hindus generally accept that there is one supreme god, but they worship that god in a variety of forms. These include Vishnu, the protector of the universe; Brahma, who is in charge of creation; and Shiva, the destroyer.
"Do naught to others which, if done to thee, would cause thee pain: This is the sum of duty."
ISLAM Followers of Islam are known as Muslims. They believe in God, whom they call Allah. The religion claims roots going back to Ibrahim (Abraham) of the Bible. Islam's founder was Hadhrat Muhammad, who was born in Saudi Arabia about 570 and died in 632. There are 1.1 billion Muslims, who believe Muhammad received messages from God. So many followers of Islam have named their children in his honor that more people have the name Muhammad than any other name in the world.
"Not one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother what he desires for himself."
JAINISM Jainism takes its name from the word "jinas," which means conquerors. The title doesn't refer to military conquering, but to victory over the cycles of life. The religion began in northeastern India during the sixth century B. C. with a man known as Mahavira, or "Great Hero." Jains do not believe in a supreme being or god. The world's 4 million Jains are known for their respect for all creatures - with good deeds toward insects among the things considered worthy of praise.
"One should treat all beings as he himself would be treated."
JUDAISM Jews consider Abraham, a shepherd who lived 4,000 years ago, as the first Jew. Abraham is considered the first to have recognized and worshipped the one God, Yahweh. They believe God created the universe and requires people to live morally and ethically. The 10 Commandments are the basic rules of Judaism, which claims 14 million followers worldwide.
"What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow man."
SIKHISM A spiritual teacher named Guru Nanak is the founder of Sikhism. He was born in the Punjab region of India in 1469. He said all people are equal in the view of the divine. There are 23 million Sikhs worldwide.
"Treat others as you would be treated yourself."